Options Trading 101

Options trading is a way of investing in shares of stock that pays out when the price rises above or falls below a certain price. It is a risky form of investment, though it can be very profitable if you know what you’re doing. It can be a good strategy to consider if you want to diversify your investments. But before you start, there are several things you should know.

Time value

When trading options, you’ll need to understand how to calculate the time value of an option. This is important because it can help you gauge the rewards you’ll receive from your trade. The time value of an option is the difference between the strike price and the underlying stock price at the end of the contract.

The time value of an option can be calculated using a specific formula. It includes the time until expiration and the expected volatility of the underlying asset.

Generally speaking, more volatile assets will have higher time values than less volatile ones. However, the actual amount of time value is not a linear function. It decreases as the option approaches expiration. It is not an exact science, but this can be useful for estimating the risk of an option.

In the first half of the life of an option, the amount of time value decreases slowly. This is known as time decay. The time value is more likely to fall off as the contract approach expiration, especially for out-of-the-money options.

In-the-money vs out-of-the-money

In-the-money options trading is often thought of as a higher risk strategy. This is because a trader could potentially lose 100% of the money he invests. However, this risk is also lessened by buying out-of-the-money options.

Buying an out-of-the-money option gives a trader the leverage of exercising the contract for a profit, but at a reduced cost. The underlying security’s value is also lower, which has the effect of decreasing the put’s value. This decrease in value is a positive for a bullish investor, but has the opposite effect for a bearish investor.

When a put option is out-of-the-money, the investor can exercise his contract to sell the stock at a price lower than the current market value of the underlying asset. By doing so, the investor is limiting his loss to the difference in the price of the underlying asset and the price of the option.

If the underlying stock increases before the option expires, the investor will have to resell the put for a higher premium. In contrast, if the underlying stock falls, the investor will have to resell for a lower price.


Spreads are options trading strategies that allow investors to bet on the future movement of the underlying asset. There are a variety of spreads that can be used in different markets. They can be complex or simple, and can be defined in many ways.

There are two types of spreads: debit and credit. The two have distinct advantages and disadvantages.

Debit spreads are a good choice when you want to minimize risk. They are less likely to cause major losses, but they do not offer a large profit potential. A debit spread is created by simultaneously writing a cheaper option while buying an expensive one. This results in an option that has a smaller risk profile and a larger profit potential.

Credit spreads are more complex. They use a strategy called “time decay.” The goal is to profit from the gradual decrease in option prices over time. This method is often used in bearish markets.


Options trading is an increasingly popular investment strategy. However, many investors are unclear about the tax treatment of options. Fortunately, the IRS provides information about the tax treatment of options.

Options contracts are classified under Section 1256 of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax code. This section describes how to report and tax investments. If you are holding Section 1256 assets, you should consult a tax professional for advice. Alternatively, you may be able to make an ITR claim to reduce your taxes.

If you are holding non-equity options, you should be aware that they are treated differently. Some of these include commodity futures and broad-based stock market index options. These types of options are subject to the 60/40 rule. This rule states that 60% of gains will be treated as long-term and 40% as short-term.

If you are an individual investor, you will be taxed on the gains of your options trades if you make less than 12 options transactions in a calendar year. This means that if you only buy and sell a few options during the course of a year, you won’t need a complicated tax plan.