Understanding Why Currency Value Changes

There are several factors that affect currency values. These include Supply and demand, Inflation, Interest rates, and Political factors. To understand why these factors impact currency values, read our Guide to Understanding Exchange Rates.

You’ll be able to spot trends and make informed currency exchange decisions. Regardless of your reasons for investing, knowing these factors will help you make better decisions. Here are some examples. A higher supply of a currency can make it more valuable. For example, a limited supply of a new holiday toy may cause people to pay more for it.

Supply and demand

Currency values are affected by the balance of supply and demand. When prices rise, the currency’s value increases. If prices fall, the currency’s value decreases. In other words, the more people hold a currency, the more people will want to buy it. The Chinese yuan is a prime example of the shifting supply. If a person wants to buy a US dollar, they must sell their yuan.

Currency values also fluctuate based on political conditions. For example, when there is political unrest, a country’s currency is less desirable. Conversely, when a country’s economy is growing, its currency’s value increases. The effects of these factors make currency fluctuations somewhat confusing. Knowing how these forces affect currency values can help you make better predictions.


Inflation is the process by which prices rise across an economy and decrease the purchasing power of a currency. For example, a movie ticket in 1980 would cost about $2.89, while a similar ticket in 2019 would cost $9.16. Inflation affects the entire economy by raising prices of goods across an industry.

A high inflation rate slows down an economy, as people can’t afford to buy things anymore and businesses won’t invest in products that won’t be worth as much in the future. This makes a currency less appealing to consumers, and lowers the value of a country’s currency. High inflation can also affect the interest rate, which tends to increase as inflation increases.

Interest rates

Interest rates have a significant impact on currency value. Higher interest rates draw in foreign investors, which in turn increases the demand for a currency. A higher interest rate also creates an additional rate of return on currency exchange. This phenomenon is called inflation, and it’s considered a good thing for a growing economy. In many countries, central banks aim for a modest inflation rate of 2 percent a year.

Speculators will try to time the change in interest rates. That’s just the nature of the market. The shift in expectations signals the beginning of speculation, and it builds momentum as the change draws nearer. Another thing to keep in mind is that interest rates can dramatically change based on a single report.

Political factors

Currency values fluctuate in tandem with political events. In the UK, Brexit caused havoc for the pound. After Trump’s election, the dollar fell. In Colombia, the FARC vote weakened the peso. And there was a spat between OPEC countries, which tightened currency controls. The relationship between politics and currency value is complex, but it is clear that human rubl manat expectations play a major role.

Currency values are influenced by political events and decisions made by governments. Whether these events are domestic or international, the value of a currency reflects the health of the underlying economy. A sudden change in political policy can cause short-term shocks, but these generally resolve themselves in time. In the long run, a currency’s value will gradually rebound.

Increasing terms of trade

A country’s exchange rate is affected by its terms of trade, which is the ratio of its export and import prices. If export prices are higher than import prices, a country’s export revenue will increase, increasing the demand for its currency and causing its value to increase. This is called an appreciation of the exchange rate.

A country’s terms of trade are affected by a variety of factors. They include changes in the supply and demand of goods and services, as well as government policy. For example, an increase in the United States’ demand for Japanese airplanes may reduce the demand for Japanese aircraft in Japan. A decrease in demand for Japanese aircraft may increase Japan’s production of aircraft, as it would increase supplies from its alternate sources.

Uncertainty about a country’s future

The value of a country’s currency can change due to a variety of reasons, including the supply and demand for its assets. The demand for a country’s assets can change depending on its economic and political situation. The value of a currency also reflects the views of investors.